Zoology (100 Marks)
I. Animal Diversity-Invertebrates
- Architectural pattern of an animal, Taxonomy and phylogeny, Major subdivisions of animal
- Animal-Like Protists: The Protozoa: evolutionary perspective, locomotion and reproduction, Protozoa of veterinary and medical
- Porifera: Body wall, skeleton and water currents Coelenterates: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism), Coral reefs.
- Platyhelminthes and Nematodes: Parasitic adaptations and medical Annelids: Metamerism and ecological importance.
- Molluscs: Modification of foot, Feeding and their role in the shell
- Arthropods: Modification in their mouth parts, Role of arthropods as vectors in the transmission in microbial Arthropods and their ecological importance.
- Echinoderms: Characteristics, Evolutionary perspective, Relationships to other animals; echinoderm
II. Animal Diversity-Chordata
- Hemichordates and Invertebrate Chordates: Evolutionary Perspective: Phylogenetic Relationships and
- Fishes: Structural and functional adaptations of
- Amphibians: Movement onto land and early evolution of terrestrial
- Reptiles: Characteristics of reptiles, adaptations in
- Birds: Migration and navigation,
- Mammals: Structural and functional adaptations of
III. Principles of Animal Life
- The chemical basis of animal life: Brief introduction to bio-molecules; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
- Cell concept and cell theory, Organization of cellular organelle (their structure and functions), Central dogma of cell biology (Transcription and Translation), Meiosis and Mitosis
- Protozoa: Reproduction pattern in protozoan, Parasitism in protozoan
- Mesozoza and Parazoa: Porifera: Cells types, body wall and skeleton and water currents system, Coelenterata: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism)
- Tissues Types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues; organs and organ systems.
- Enzymes function and factors affecting their activity, cofactors and coenzymes. Energy Harvesting: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration the major source of ATP
- Mendel’s law of inheritance, Chromosomal basis of inheritance, Multiple alleles, Eukaryotic chromosomes: Mutations and chromosomal aberrations.
- Ecological Concepts: Interactions, Concepts and components of ecosystem, Food chain, Food web, Biogeochemical cycles, Forests, Biomes, Wildlife conservation and management, Environmental pollution, Green house effect, Acid rain, Global warming and climate change.
- Evolution: Darwinian evolutionary theory based on natural selection and the evidence, Microevolution: Genetic variation and change within species, Macroevolution: Species and speciation (Allopatric, Parapatric and Sympatric speciation)
IV. Animal Form and Function
- Protection, Support and Movement: Integumentary system of invertebrates and vertebrates; Animal muscles: the muscular system of invertebrates and vertebrates.
- Digestion and Nutrition: Feeding mechanism, Digestion, Organization and regional function of alimentary canal, Regulation of food intake, Nutritional requirements
- Internal Fluids and Respiration: Internal fluid environment, Composition of blood, Circulation and respiration mechanisms
- Homeostasis: Excretion, Vertebrate kidney mechanisms, Temperature regulation
- Nervous Coordination: Nervous system and Senses: Functional units of nervous system, Synapses junctions between nerves
- Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System; Vertebrate endocrine glands and types of hormones, Mechanism of hormones action,
- Animal Behavior: Learning, Habituation, Insight learning, latent learning, classical learning: Control of Behavior; social behavior