Geology (100 Marks)
Part- I (50-marks)
I. Introduction to Physical Geology
Introduction and scope of geology, its importance and relationship with other sciences; Earth as a member of the solar system: its origin, age, composition and internal structure; Introduction to rocks and minerals; Weathering and erosion; Isostasy; Geological Time Scale.
II. Stratigraphy and Paleontology
Principles of stratigraphy; Laws of superposition and faunal succession; Geological time scale with divisions; Classification and nomenclature of stratigraphic units: lithostragraphic units, biostratigraphic units and chronostratgraphic units.
Introduction to fossils and their significance; Modes of fossilization; Study of morphology, range and broad classification of major invertebrate phyla; Introduction to micro fossils; Introduction to Paleobotany; Introduction and classification of major vertebrates; Introduction to micropaleontology
Classification of minerals; Study of internal structure; Polymorphism and isomorphism; Paragenesis; Physical and optical properties of the common silicate and non-silicate mineral groups; Introduction to crystallography: elements of symmetry, study; normal classes of crystallographic systems.
IV. Structural Geology and Tectonics
Stress-strain concepts; factors controlling the mechanical behavior of materials; Folds; Faults; Joints; Foliation: terminology, classification and relationship with bedding; Lineation; Unconformity.
Plate tectonics theory; Geological evidences for continental drift; Sea-floor spreading; Oceanic ridges; Continental rifts; Intra-oceanic islands; Hot spot and Mantle plumes; Wilson Cycle; Tectonic framework of Pakistan.
V. Petrology and Petrography
Introduction, classification and description of sedimentary rocks; origin; transportation and deposition of sediments; Texture of sedimentary rocks; Sedimentary structures, their classification, morphology and significance; Composition, origin, differentiation and evolution of magma; Classification of igneous rocks; Mode of occurrences and types of extrusive rocks; Texture and structure of igneous rocks; Introduction to metamorphism; Types of metamorphism; Grades, zones and facies of metamorphism; Metamorphic diffusion and differentiation; Metamorphism in relation to Plate Tectonics; Differentiation between metamorphism and metasomatism.
Introduction to Polarizing Microscope; Optical properties of opaque and non-opaque minerals in plane polarized light and under crossed Nicol including metallic under reflected light; Description of optical properties of common rock forming minerals.
Part- II (50-marks)
I. Introduction to Geophysics
Definition and relation of geophysics with other sciences; Classification and brief description of various branches of geophysics such as seismology, geomagnetism, geoelectricity, tectonophysics, gravimetry, geo-thermy and geodesy; Introduction to various geophysical techniques for exploration of mineral deposits, oil and gas, subsurface water and engineering works.
II. Sequence Stratigraphy
Introduction: history, concept and significance of sequence stratigraphy; Data sources: seismic reflections, outcrops, well logs, core and seismic facies; Sea level changes: their causes and effects, accommodation, eustatic and relative sea curve; Hierarchy of sequence stratigraphic elements; Types of sequences and systems tracts.
III. Petroleum Geology
The nature and classification of petroleum hydrocarbons, their origin, migration and accumulation; Source sediments, reservoir rocks and trapping mechanism for oil and gas; Prospecting and exploration of oil and gas; Reservoir: characteristics, drive mechanism, energy and pressure maintenance; Secondary and enhanced recovery; Introduction to Sedimentary Basins of Pakistan.
IV. Engineering and Environmental Geology
Rock and soil mechanics and its application in civil engineering; Rock mass characteristics; Geotechnical studies of rocks and soils; Geological factors and strength of rocks; Study of geological factors in relation to the construction of buildings’ foundations, roads, highways, tunnels, dams and bridges; Application of geophysical methods for site investigation; Construction materials; Mass movement: their causes and prevention.
Introduction to environmental geology; Management of natural resources; Global climatic changes; Environmental controls for erosion, desertification and coastal degradation; Geological hazards such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, glaciers and shoreline processes; Remedial measures; Clean sources of energy; Industrial pollution, solid and liquid waste disposal, Introduction to environmental impact assessment and initial environmental examination.
V. Mineral and Energy Resources
Introduction of geological exploration/prospecting. Brief description of hydrocarbons, coal, gemstones, copper, lead, zinc, iron, gold, chromite, manganese, salt, gypsum, bauxite, sulphur, barite, fluorite, clays, phosphorite, building and dimension stones; Industrial rocks and minerals; Radioactive minerals and rocks; Special reference to economic mineral deposits in Pakistan.
Origin, occurrence, and depositional environments of coal; Coal constitution and its kinds; Coal rank, grade and calorific value; Coal deposits of Pakistan with reference to Thar Coal; Geothermal energy resources of Pakistan.
VI. Economic and Applied Geology
Metallic and Non-metallic mineral resources of Pakistan; Mineral-based industries. Overview of Recodec Copper; Radioactive minerals and their occurrences in Pakistan; Gemstones of Pakistan.
Geology of Reservoirs, dams, highways and tunnels; Major natural hazards and their impacts on the environment with special reference to Pakistan.